The Arab Republic of Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa bordering the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Its neighboring countries are Libya, the Gaza Strip, and Sudan. Egypt stretches over a million square kilometers, although only about 7.7% of the country is inhabited with the rest being a desert. The population is concentrated in the plains of the Nile Valley and Delta, and the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.

The economy is dependent on agriculture, tourism, and cash remittances from Egyptians working in the Gulf countries mainly in Saudi Arabia, and abroad. The country’s largest employers are the government, the garment and textile industries, and tourism.

 

*Please note that the official currency is the currency of remuneration when employed through WorkMotion in Egypt.

Capitale :
Cairo
Devise :
Egyptian Pound (EGP, E£)
Langues parlées :
Arabic
Nombre d'habitants :
104.95 million (2022 est.)
Salaire minimum :
2400 EGP (monthly)
Index du coût de la vie :
$ (127 of 139 countries)
Payroll Frequency :
Monthly
Taux normal de la TVA :
14%
Croissance réelle du PIB :
3.3% (2021 est.)

Statutory Holidays

The national holidays mentioned below are valid for the year 2022.

Date
Holiday Name
Extra Information
January 7
Coptic Christmas Day
Movable - As per Orthodox Calendar
January 25
Revolution and National Police Day
April 24
Coptic Easter Sunday
Movable - As per Orthodox Calendar
April 25
Sinai Liberation Day - Sham El-Nessim
May 1
Labor Day
May 2 - 3
Eid Al-Fitr
Movable - As per Islamic Lunar Calendar
June 30
Revolution
July 8 - 12
Eid Al-Adha
Movable - As per Islamic Lunar Calendar
July 23
Revolution Day
July 30
Islamic New Year
Movable - As per Islamic Lunar Calendar
October 6
Armed Forces Day
October 8
Prophet Muhammad's Birthday
Movable - As per the Islamic Lunar Calendar

Contract Sharing Time


The approximate time for sharing the contract with an employee in Egypt is 14 business days assuming no special requests or changes to our standard employment contract. Any such requests or changes would need to undergo internal and external review, directly leading to a time delay.

NOTE: This number is subject to change and is only an estimation of the Contract Sharing Time. The estimated Contract Sharing Time begins from the moment that WorkMotion has received all required information from both the client and the employee.

What You Need To Know


  • It is difficult to terminate an employment contract. Dismissing an employee without an “acceptable” reason can be costly.
  • A female employee can terminate their employment contract without compensating the employer where the termination is related to marriage, pregnancy, or delivery.
  • The minimum obligatory annual increase is set at no less than 3% of the basic salary which is the basis for the calculation of social insurance (effective from January 2022).

Labor Conditions


Working Hours

The standard working week consists of eight hours a day, over five days (40 hours a week), or over six days (48 hours per week), excluding meal and rest periods.

Employees are entitled to one-day rest after a maximum of six days of work.

An employee must not exceed 10 working hours per day.

 

Overtime

Overtime premium is 35% of the normal pay for work performed during daylight, 70% for work performed at night time, and 100% for work performed on days off and holidays.

 

Probation Period

The probation period is as stated in an employment contract but may not exceed three months and may not be extended.

A worker may not serve more than one probation with the same employer.

Termination Notice Period

The notice period depends on an employee’s uninterrupted length of service with an employer.

Length of ServiceApplicable Notice Period
Less than 10 years2 months
More than 10 years3 months

A worker is required to give a legitimate and adequate cause related to health, social, or economic conditions for terminating the contract. The notice period begins from the date it is received. 

Leave / Time Off

Annual Leave

Employees are entitled to 21 days of paid annual leave per year if employed for at least six consecutive months. The leave increases to 30 days for employees who have completed 10 years of consecutive employment or for employees over 50 years of age.

The period of annual leave is increased by seven days for employees engaged in hard, dangerous, and unwholesome work, or in remote areas as determined by the Minister of Manpower.

 

Sick Leave

The employer contributes 3.25% to the sickness insurance for social security, while the employee contributes 1%.

An employee is entitled to up to a maximum of six months of paid sick leave over three years. The sick leave is determined by a competent medical department.

An employee with a proven record of sickness is entitled to 75% of their salary as paid sick leave which is increased to 85% for the following 90 days as illustrated in the table below.

Period of Sick LeaveApplicable Percentage of Salary Sick Leave Pay
First 90 days75%
Next 90 days85%

Sick leave is paid for by the Social Solidarity Authority.

Parental Leave

A female employee in an establishment that employs 50 or more employees has the right to leave without pay for a period not exceeding two years in order to take care of her child. The leave entitlement is for a maximum of two times during her period of service with an employer.

 

Maternity Leave

A female employee who has been in service for a minimum of 10 months is entitled to a fully paid maternity leave of 90 days (45 of which should be after the date of delivery). The Social Solidarity Authority pays 75% of the insured salary of the employee currently capped at about EGP 2,500. The employer pays the remaining 25%. The benefit is paid for a maximum of three pregnancies.

 

Paternity Leave

The Labor Law does not have a provision for paternity leave.

Other Types of Paid Leave

Type of Paid Leave
Description
Casual Leave
An employee may be absent from work for unplanned emergencies for a period of not more than six days in a year. Each period of absence is for a maximum of two days. The time taken is deducted from the employee’s annual leave entitlement.
Pilgrimage Leave
After five continuous years in the service of an employer, an employee is entitled to a paid leave of one month for pilgrimage duty to Mecca or Jerusalem. Pilgrimage leave is granted only once during the employee’s term of employment with an employer.
Study Leave
Employees are entitled to paid study leave subject to collective bargaining agreements. The duration of the leave is not defined.

Statutory Benefits

Social security includes provisions for old age, disability, death, work injuries, sickness, and unemployment.

The employer contributes a total of 18.75% to the social security, while the employee contributes 11%, broken down as follows:

Social Security SchemeEmployer ContributionsEmployee Contributions
Pension: Old Age, Disability, and Survivor12%*9%*
End of Service Bonus1%1%
Sickness3.25%1%
Work Injuries1.5%
Unemployment1%
Total18.75%11%

*NOTE: The pension contribution rates increase by 0.5 percentage points every seven years until the combined employer and employee contribution rates reach 26% by 2055.

Health Insurance

All private sector companies in Egypt are required to provide free healthcare for their Egyptian employees either through the Medical Insurance Plan of the Ministry of Social Insurance or privately. An employer is exempted from the system if they establish a private fund. Medical benefits provided to the insured workers include general and specialist care, surgery, hospitalization, maternity care, dental care, laboratory services, medicine, rehabilitation services, and appliances.

Other Insurances

Accident Insurance

Only the employer contributes 1.5% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards accident insurance.

To qualify for accident insurance benefits, the employee must be assessed with a work injury or occupational disease. There is no minimum qualifying period.

Benefits include:

  • Temporary and permanent disability benefits
  • Workers medical benefits
  • Survivor benefits 
Unemployment Insurance

Only the employer contributes 1% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards unemployment insurance.

A worker is entitled to an unemployment allowance for up to 12 weeks for those with less than 36 months contribution, and for 28 weeks in the case of those with contributions in excess of 36 months.

The following conditions of qualification for unemployment benefits apply:

  • An employee must have participated in the social insurance system for at least one year;
  • Be younger than the normal retirement age;
  • Be able and willing to work;
  • Be registered with and report regularly to the local employment office;
  • Unemployment must not be the result of voluntary leaving, misconduct, or the refusal of training or a suitable job offer.

Public Pension

The employer contributes 12% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards Pension (Old Age, Disability, and Survivors), while the employee contributes 9%.

A worker gets a full pension on attaining the age of 60 with at least 15 years’ contribution. Early pension is available at any age level where there is 25 years’ contribution.

Other Statutory Benefits

End of Service Bonus

Both the employer and the employee contribute 1% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards the end-of-service bonus, respectively.

When an insured person retires, they receive their account balance (made up of total employee and employer contributions and accrued interest) as a lump sum.

Disclaimer

The information contained in this Country Guide is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. The contents of this Country Guide contain general information and may not reflect current legal developments or address your situation. You should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this Country Guide without seeking the advice or representation of a licensed attorney. WorkMotion Software GmbH disclaims all liability for actions you take or fail to take based on any content included in this Country Guide.

Information provided in this Country Guide is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. WorkMotion Software GmbH periodically adds, changes, improves, updates, or removes information without notice, and assumes no liability or responsibility for any errors or omissions in the contents of this Country Guide. This Country Guide may contain links to other websites. WorkMotion Software GmbH disclaims all liability for the privacy practices or the content of such websites.

 

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