The Arab Republic of Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa bordering the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Its neighboring countries are Libya, the Gaza Strip, and Sudan. Egypt stretches over a million square kilometers, although only about 7.7% of the country is inhabited with the rest being a desert. The population is concentrated in the plains of the Nile Valley and Delta, and the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
The economy is dependent on agriculture, tourism, and cash remittances from Egyptians working in the Gulf countries mainly in Saudi Arabia, and abroad. The country’s largest employers are the government, the garment and textile industries, and tourism.
*Please note that the official currency is the currency of remuneration when employed through WorkMotion in Egypt.
Egyptian Pound (EGP, E£)
Languages spoken :
104.95 million (2022 est.)
Minimum wage 2023 :
2700 EGP (monthly)
Cost of Living index :
$ (127 of 139 countries)
Payroll Frequency :
VAT - standard rate :
GDP - real growth rate :
3.3% (2021 est.)
The national holidays mentioned below are valid for the year 2023.
The approximate time for sharing the contract with an employee in Egypt is 14 business days assuming no special requests or changes to our standard employment contract. Any such requests or changes would need to undergo internal and external review, directly leading to a time delay.
NOTE: This number is subject to change and is only an estimation of the Contract Sharing Time. The estimated Contract Sharing Time begins from the moment that WorkMotion has received all required information from both the client and the employee.
The standard working week consists of eight hours a day, over five days (40 hours a week), or over six days (48 hours per week), excluding meal and rest periods.
Employees are entitled to one-day rest after a maximum of six days of work.
An employee must not exceed 10 working hours per day.
Overtime premium is 35% of the normal pay for work performed during daylight, 70% for work performed at night time, and 100% for work performed on days off and holidays.
The probation period is as stated in an employment contract but may not exceed three months and may not be extended.
A worker may not serve more than one probation with the same employer.
The notice period depends on an employee’s uninterrupted length of service with an employer.
|Length of Service||Applicable Notice Period|
|Less than 10 years||2 months|
|More than 10 years||3 months|
A worker is required to give a legitimate and adequate cause related to health, social, or economic conditions for terminating the contract. The notice period begins from the date it is received.
Employees are entitled to 21 days of paid annual leave per year if employed for at least six consecutive months. The leave increases to 30 days for employees who have completed 10 years of consecutive employment or for employees over 50 years of age.
The period of annual leave is increased by seven days for employees engaged in hard, dangerous, and unwholesome work, or in remote areas as determined by the Minister of Manpower.
The employer contributes 3.25% to the sickness insurance for social security, while the employee contributes 1%.
An employee is entitled to up to a maximum of six months of paid sick leave over three years. The sick leave is determined by a competent medical department.
An employee with a proven record of sickness is entitled to 75% of their salary as paid sick leave which is increased to 85% for the following 90 days as illustrated in the table below.
|Period of Sick Leave||Applicable Percentage of Salary Sick Leave Pay|
|First 90 days||75%|
|Next 90 days||85%|
Sick leave is paid for by the Social Solidarity Authority.
A female employee in an establishment that employs 50 or more employees has the right to leave without pay for a period not exceeding two years in order to take care of her child. The leave entitlement is for a maximum of two times during her period of service with an employer.
A female employee who has been in service for a minimum of 10 months is entitled to a fully paid maternity leave of 90 days (45 of which should be after the date of delivery). The Social Solidarity Authority pays 75% of the insured salary of the employee currently capped at about EGP 2,500. The employer pays the remaining 25%. The benefit is paid for a maximum of three pregnancies.
The Labor Law does not have a provision for paternity leave.
Social security includes provisions for old age, disability, death, work injuries, sickness, and unemployment.
The employer contributes a total of 18.75% to the social security, while the employee contributes 11%, broken down as follows:
|Social Security Scheme||Employer Contributions||Employee Contributions|
|Pension: Old Age, Disability, and Survivor||12%*||9%*|
|End of Service Bonus||1%||1%|
*NOTE: The pension contribution rates increase by 0.5 percentage points every seven years until the combined employer and employee contribution rates reach 26% by 2055.
All private sector companies in Egypt are required to provide free healthcare for their Egyptian employees either through the Medical Insurance Plan of the Ministry of Social Insurance or privately. An employer is exempted from the system if they establish a private fund. Medical benefits provided to the insured workers include general and specialist care, surgery, hospitalization, maternity care, dental care, laboratory services, medicine, rehabilitation services, and appliances.
Only the employer contributes 1.5% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards accident insurance.
To qualify for accident insurance benefits, the employee must be assessed with a work injury or occupational disease. There is no minimum qualifying period.
Only the employer contributes 1% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards unemployment insurance.
A worker is entitled to an unemployment allowance for up to 12 weeks for those with less than 36 months contribution, and for 28 weeks in the case of those with contributions in excess of 36 months.
The following conditions of qualification for unemployment benefits apply:
The employer contributes 12% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards Pension (Old Age, Disability, and Survivors), while the employee contributes 9%.
A worker gets a full pension on attaining the age of 60 with at least 15 years’ contribution. Early pension is available at any age level where there is 25 years’ contribution.
Both the employer and the employee contribute 1% of the comprehensive insurance salary towards the end-of-service bonus, respectively.
When an insured person retires, they receive their account balance (made up of total employee and employer contributions and accrued interest) as a lump sum.
The information contained in this Country Guide is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. The contents of this Country Guide contain general information and may not reflect current legal developments or address your situation. You should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this Country Guide without seeking the advice or representation of a licensed attorney. WorkMotion Software GmbH disclaims all liability for actions you take or fail to take based on any content included in this Country Guide.
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